The TIMA Travel Industry Glossary

A Modern Summary of Travel Industry Terms and Definitions

Puzzled by all of the acronyms and insider jargon that you’ll hear throughout the travel industry? Well, you’ve come to the right place. We’ve done our best to de-mystify some of the terms and what their meaning is today. Enjoy!

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There are currently 587 terms in this directory
A la carte
Refers to meals and indicates that each item or dish is priced separately.

ABA
The American Business Association is one of the largest trade organizations for the group tour market. They have an annual Marketplace where several thousand tour operators and suppliers meet to create business for all.

ABC
A reference to the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaco. Fabulous for diving, snorkeling and all water sports.

Actual Time of Arrival
Literally the actual time of arrival versus the ETA or the estimated time of arrival.

Add-On
An added amenity or benefit that typically increases the price to a travel reservation.

Adjoining Rooms
Bordering hotel rooms that share a common door. These are often booked for families that need more than one room but want their family to be together.

ADM
Agency Debit Memo is a notice sent by an airline to a travel agent alerting them of a fee charged due to a mistake made in a booking or in the ticketing process.

Adoption Rate
The percentage of tickets issued through an online booking system compared to the traditional channel of agent-assisted reservations.

Advance Purchase Requirement
Airline fares that require purchase with a minimum number of days prior to flight departure.

Adventure Tour
A tour designed around an adventurous activity like river rafting, hiking, biking or mountain climbing.

Adventure Travel
A category or segment of travel that involves exploration or with travel with a perceived (and possibly real) risk, and potentially requiring specialized skills, physical exertion and equipment.

Affinity Card
Credit cards or debit cards that are issued by a banking institution in partnership and co-branded with a travel supplier/company that has a reward/frequent traveler program. These cards allow the customer to earn points or miles towards future purchases.

Affinity Group
A group of people that share a common hobby, interest or activity or are united through regular participation in shared outings or travel.

Aft
A directional term meaning towards the rear of the ship.

After Departure Charge
Charges that do not appear on the guest's hotel bill at checkout, such as telephone or dining charges, but are still the responsibility of the customer.

Agent
A person who has the power to act as the representative for another person. Most frequently in travel, this is the travel agent who is acting on behalf of their traveling customer.

AIO Variables
Activities, interests and opinions -- used to measure and categorize customer lifestyles.

Air Mile
A distance of approximately 6,076 feet.

Air Traffic Control (ATC)
Usually refers to the control tower at an airport which manages the flow of aircraft in and out of an airport. The reference of "ATC" is a designation for heavy traffic flow when referring to a late arrival or departure.

Air/Sea
A term that refers to tickets, trips, fares, etc., that includes both air and sea-based travel arrangements. For example an Air/Sea package would include flight arrangements to and from the cruise line embarkation city, as well as the cruise itself.

Airline Alliance
Agreements between two or more airlines that provide additional benefits to the customer. These alliances typically provide added value around reservations, seat assignments, baggage services and loyalty program benefits.

Airport Access Fee
This is a fee paid to the airport authority by car rental companies for the use of shuttle vehicles. This often appears in customer's car rental bills as an itemized transaction.

Airport Transfer
A transport service to/from an airport to a hotel (or other destination). This fee is normally prepaid as part of the customer's package, but is also available separately.

All Inclusive
A travel or tour package that includes most or all travel elements for a set price. All-inclusive packages often refer to hotel resorts that offer the hotel room night plus a meal plan altogether for one price.

Alternative Tourism
Travel that is not conventional in nature - neither business or leisure travel. It is a niche segment of travel not commonly categorized. It may involve travel that encourages interaction with the local environment, people and communities. Other common terms include Eco-Tourism and "Voluntourism", (cause or charity motivated travel).

Ambassador
The head of a state's diplomatic mission in another state or country, usually with offices inside the main embassy.

Amenities
Value added features and benefits such as complimentary shore excursions, bar or boutique credit or wine at dinner offered to clients on a tour or cruise. This is usually a bonus or incentive package that encourages clients to book through a particular travel agency or organization.

American Plan
A hotel meal plan that usually includes all three meals each day -- breakfast, lunch and dinner.

AMEX
American Express

Amidships
A direction term referring to the middle of the ship - usually the most stable part of the vessel.

Anniversary Travel
Refers to travel celebrating a specific milestone like a wedding anniversary.

Antebellum
Describes a building and/or period of time prior to the Civil War, such as an antebellum mansion in the South.

APEX
A term meaning "Advance Purchase Excursion Fare". These are normall y he least expensive fares and have the most restrictions and purchase requirements.

Apron
The area surrounding the gate areas of a terminal. Generally used for parking and maintenance of aircraft.

ARC
The Airlines Reporting Corporation is responsible for supervising payments from travel agencies to airlines along with the manner in which tickets are issued to consumers. It acts as a clearinghouse between the airline supplier and the Buyer (travel agents, etc.)

ARTA
Association of Retail Travel Agents is a professional trade group of travel agents only.

ASC Fee
Administrative Service Charge which commonly refers to the fee to change a ticket or the Change Fee to exchange a ticket for future travel.

Assets
The attractions, hotels and restaurants within a given region. Assets are what that area has to offer guests who visit.

ASTA
American Society of Travel Agents is a trade association/organization that supports travel agencies, travel agents and allied members like suppliers. ASTA is located in Washington D.C. and has significant focus on lobbying on behalf of the travel industry.

Attractions
An activity or special interest area to travelers like National Parks, monuments, amusement parks, etc.

Autobahn
The German, high-speed equivalent of the U.S. Interstate System.

Availability
The total number of seats (on a flight) or rooms (in a hotel) that can be sold a specific rate.

Average Room Rate
The total guest room revenue for a given period of time divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period.

Babymoon
A relaxing and romantic vacation or getaway taken by parents-to-be before their baby is born.

Back to Back
A term used to describe tours operating on a consistent, continual basis. For instance, a motor coach arriving in a city from a cross-country tour, may conclude the first tour upon arrival, then transport a second group back along the same route to origination city of the first tour.

Baggage Allowance
The amount of baggage a passenger may transport without having to pay extra charges. These fees are determined by carrier.

Balcony
Sometimes called the verandah, this is an outside deck or porch that is usually private and just outside a ship's cabin. This is typically a premium cabin and priced more than an interior cabin (without a balcony).

Barge Cruising
Pleasure cruising along a canal system, such as in upstate New York or in Europe, in converted barges or new ships that resemble barges.

Base Fare
The cost of an airfare prior to addition of fees, taxes or surcharges.

Beam
A directional term used on ships and aircraft which describes something off to the side of the vessel like the wings.

Bed and Breakfast
Fondly known as a B & B. A Bed and Breakfast home or guest house that a proprietor has converted into accommodation(s) for the public. Each room becomes a separate unit for rent and and typically includes breakfast and/or other meals as part of the rate.

Bell Captain
The person in charge of luggage at a hotel.

Bellman
A person who carries one's luggage to a hotel room.

Benelux
A term for the countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

Berth
Usually refers to the bed in a ship's cabin; Also refers to the space at which a ship is docked.

Bespoke Tour
A Tour that is customized, personalized and tailor-made for the traveler.

Birthday Travel
A type of milestone travel celebrating a birthday - often marking a decade milestone.

Blackout Dates
Specific dates in which special fares or promotions do not apply. These dates usually exist around the holidays or high-travel periods like summer.

Bleisure
A hybrid term for customers combine leisure with professional business obligations when traveling. This is a trending segment as travelers take shorter vacations and tag them on to business travel.

Blocked Space
Seats are reserved to be sold to a third party company (like a wholesaler or tour operator) at a discounted rate - who will then add their commission for a total price to the customer.

Boarding Pass
A document issued at airport check-in that authorizes passage through airport security and airplane boarding. Today's boarding passes can be paperless and obtained through email and text with a smart phone.

Boutique Hotel
A boutique hotel is a type of hotel, usually smaller and more intimate than a chain hotel, and usually conforms to a niche traveler or market.

Bow
Bow is a directional term and refers to the front of a ship or the nose of an aircraft.

Break Even Point (BEP)
This is the point at which revenues and expenses are the same. The BEP is where costs are entirely covered. For example, the BEP is the number of travel product items (like airline seats, hotel rooms, tours, tickets, etc.), that must be sold for a company to break even.

Breakage
A revenue management term for expense budgeted but not used or expended, thus resulting in additional profit to the travel supplier. For example a tour operator might budget for the expense of 100% meals for its tour, but less than that actually "take or accept" the offer, therefore the unused portion is referred to as breakage.

Bridge
The navigational center of a ship.

Bucket List
Bucket List travel is a list of destinations, activities or experiences that a person wants to experience in their lifetime.

Bulk Contract
An agreement whereby an airline sells large blocks of seats at a discount for resale by a third party.

Bulk Fare
A reduced fare for purchases that include a large number of tickets for groups. Groups might include tour groups, teams, clubs, etc. This might also be referred to as a group fare.

Bulkhead
A partitioning wall between cabins on an airplane. Bulkhead seats typically do not have under seat storage space for luggage, but often have extra leg room.

Bumping
The airline practice of denying boarding to a confirmed passenger who does hold a ticket on a specific flight, due to an oversold condition. The carrier will ask for volunteers to take a later flight and will normally provide some form of compensation in the form of a future flight voucher. Rules for compensation vary.

Business Class
Refers to a premium class of service on an airline and falls generally between First Class (the premium cabin) and Coach or Economy Class (the main cabin). Business Class amenities vary, but typically include wider seats with more leg room and other free amenities that might otherwise have a cost associated with them (like food and beverage).

Buyers
Travel Trade Professionals who sell to consumers. They are tour operators, receptive operators, travel agents and OTAs (online travel agents). They look for destinations and attractions to package and sell to their customers.

Cabin Crew
The collective group of flight attendants and the purser as a whole on a flight. The cabin crew is responsible for the safety of the passengers and the duties within the cabin including beverage and meal service.

Cabin Steward
The person responsible for maintaining and cleaning the cabins aboard a ship.

Cancellation Penalty
A fee charged to a customer that cancels their flight after booking a reservation. Fees vary based on the airline carrier and the respective fare policy.

Cape and Islands
Refers to Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket - popular summer getaway for New Yorkers and East Coast residents.

Captain
The captain is the pilot or commander of an aircraft or a ship.

Carrier
A generic term for any company that transports passengers and/or freight.

Cay
A term for a small island, used primarily in the Caribbean, such as Princess Cay.

CCRA
The Computerized Corporate Travel Rate Association (CCRA) was initially established as a travel industry emergency call center, and later expanded into a travel agency consortium for air and hotel rates. Today CCRA continues those services alongside the Travel Retail Universal Enumeration program (TRUE) as well as a variety of booking and marketing products for travel agencies and suppliers.

Celebrity Travel
Celebrity and "high net worth" travel is an ultra-luxurious travel category describing the highly demanding travel requirements of celebrity and high net worth travelers. This typically involves luxury accommodations with detailed amenities, secluded destinations, with attention to privacy, security and confidentiality.

Certified Tour Professional (CTP)
A designation awarded to tour professionals who have completed a prescribed course of academic study, professional service, tour employment and met evaluation requirements. The CTP program is administered by the National Tour Association and is open to individuals employed in any segment of the travel/tourism industry.

Certified Travel Associate (CTA)
A travel professional certified by the Institute of Certified Travel Agents (ICTA), who has passed a series of rigorous tests, assuring the traveling public of professional competence.

Certified Travel Counselor (CTC)
A designation attesting to professional competence as a travel agent. It is conferred upon travel professionals with five or more years of industry experience who completes a two-year graduate-level travel management program administered by the Institute of Certified Travel Agents (ICTA).

Certified Travel Industry Specialist (CTIS)
A designation conferred upon American Bus Association member company employees who successfully complete five correspondence courses (three) required and two electives and a written evaluation of eight marketplace seminars.

Chain Ratio Method
A method for forecasting market demand by multiplying a base market figure by a series of consumption constraints.

Chamber of Commerce
A DMO that operates at the local level of a destination/city/region and is comprised of businesses that are not necessarily associated with the travel/tourism industry but have a vested interest in promoting business within the community.

Change of Equipment
When a flight (with a single flight number) lands and changes the type of airplane used before continuing on to its final destination. This can result in changed seat assignments as well as denied boarding if the aircraft does not have the same seats.

Charter Service
To hire the exclusive use of any aircraft, motor coach, or other vehicle.

Chauffer Driven Tour
A chauffeur tour is a tour driven by a chauffeur employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine.

Chunnel
This is a slang term for the tunnel beneath the English Channel which goes between England and France, through which the Eurostar train travels.

Circle Itinerary
A travel routing that begins in one city and overnights in different locations before returning back to the origination point. For example a circle itinerary might start in Dallas and go to Denver, Los Angeles, Phoenix and return back to Dallas.

City Code
The three letter city code assigned to all airports by IATA, for GDS identification, luggage transfer and a variety of industry management requirements. For example the New York area has three main airports including New York/JFK (JFK), New York LaGuardia (LGA) and Newark (EWR).

City Guide
A tour guide who points out and comments on the highlights of a city, usually from a motor coach or van.

Class of service
The inventory in which a passenger is booked according to the fare purchased (e.g. a full coach class fare is usually Y class of service, while first class is denoted with F).

CLIA
Cruise Lines International Association located in NYC, NY, that offers professional development and training programs for the cruise industry.

Client List
A printout of the names of all tour participants.

Client Mix
The mix of different customer/client categories that companies strive to achieve based on revenue and product goals. For example a client mix might include leisure, business and luxury clients.

Closeout
Finalization of a tour, cruise, or a similar group travel project after which time no further clients can be accepted. Any unsold air or hotel space is released and final lists and payments are sent to all suppliers.

Co-op Advertising
An agreement between two parties to share the cost of advertising or marketing to the same customer. For example United Airlines and Hertz Rental Car might get into a co-op advertising agreement in which they share the cost of communicating their products/services to the same consumer.

Co-op Tour
Selling a tour through a number of wholesalers, cooperatives, or other outlets in order to increase sales and reduce the possibility of tour cancellations.

Codeshare
An agreement between two or more airlines which allows one carrier to market and sell the flight and then collect payment for a flight operated by another carrier. This partnership provides airlines the opportunity to expand their existing schedule of service beyond their own fleet.

Collision Damage Waiver (CDW)
Optional insurance coverage provided by a car rental company that eliminates all responsibility of the driver in case of an accident. Car rental insurance covering any damage to the rental vehical. Many credit card companies (like American Express) cover their clients in this area if they use that specific card to pay for the rental. Coverage varies by credit card issuer.

Commission
A service fee that is added to the total fee in order to make money. Commissions are usually percentages of the total. For example a travel agent might charge a 10% commission to book an airline ticket or a hotel room for their customer because they are adding a service of time and expertise.

Commission Cap
The limit placed on commissions paid to travel agents for the sale of various travel products (like airline tickets), regardless of price. Designed for suppliers to increase their profits at the expense of their primary distribution system - the travel agent.

Commissionable Tour
A tour available through retail and wholesale travel agencies which provides for a payment of an agreed upon sales commission to the retailer or wholesale seller.

Commuter Airline
A term that refers to small, regional airlines that often fly shorter flights and serve a regional market.

Comp Policy
Arrangements for free tickets, rooms, meals etc.

Concierge
A hotel employee who provides additional advice, recommendations and other services to guests. Services might include restaurant reservations, theatre tickets, activity suggestions/reservations, etc. This is an employee of the hotel whose primary task is to liaison between the hotel/guest and the various non-hotel suppliers and services that support a guest's stay.

Configuration
The interior arrangement of an airplane or a transport vehicle. The same aircraft type (for example a 737), might be configured differently than another 737. Number of seats vary and the configuration of Coach and First class might also vary.

Confirmed Reservation
An oral or written statement by a travel supplier that they have received and will honor a reservation.

Connecting Flight
A flight that makes a stop at an intermediate point where the traveler must change planes in order to continue/connect to another flight to reach their destination.

Connecting Room
Two rooms that are connected to each other by a door. These rooms can be sold as a connecting/adjoining room to the same party or separately to two different parties (in which case the doors are locked from both sides).

Consolidation
Cancellation by a charter tour operator of one or more flights associated with a specific charter departure or departure period, with the transfer of passengers to another charter flight to depart on or around the same day.

Consolidator
A business that has contracts with airlines to sell tickets in bulk, generally at a discounted rate.

Consortium
A collection of organizations made up of independently owned and managed agencies who band together to increase their buying power.

Consulate
Essentially a satellite office of the embassy with limited roles.

Consumer
The actual user of a product or service. Specific terms include passenger, guest, customer, patron, etc.

Consumer Protection Plan
A plan offered by a company and/or association that protects the customer's deposits and payments from loss in the event of company bankruptcy

Consumption Constraints
A business term that describes issues or circumstances that may limit the number of people in a market who will purchase a product. Examples of constraint might include price, weather, competition.

Continental Breakfast
A breakfast that includes a beverage (coffee, tea) and rolls/toast and fruit juice. It does not include full meals or entrees.

Control Tower
Often referred to as simply "the tower", the people that man the Control Tower (called air traffic controllers), oversee aircraft movement at the airport, in the sky and on the ground.

Convention and Visitors Bureau

Corporate Agency
A travel agency that specializes in corporate travel, catering to medium to large sized businesses and organizations. Corporate agents/agencies have expertise in booking corporate travel, including airfare, frequency/loyalty programs, hotels, car rentals, etc.

Corporate Rate
A hotel rate or airline fare that is designated to appeal to the business traveler. It is not necessarily discounted or a minimum rate, but often has additional flexibility for the business traveler's needs for spontaneity.

Corporate Travel
Travel arranged and managed by a business for business purposes. A division or department of a travel agency might be devoted to only corporate travel - offering an expertise for this type of customer.

Cost Plus Pricing
Cost of the product or service in addition to an added commission or service fee.

Couchette
The sleeping compartment of a train that can contain up to six beds.

CRS
Computerized Reservation System is an automated system used by travel agents that contains pricing, availability and product descriptions for hotels, car rentals, cruise lines, and air transportation. CRS can be synonymous with the Global Distribution System (GDS).

Cruise
A cruise is a voyage on a ship, boat or barge, taken for pleasure or as a vacation and usually docking at several port destinations.

Cruise Tour
A land and sea vacation which combines a cruise with a multi-night land tour to inland destinations that the ship cannot reach.

Cuisine
A style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes associated with a specific culture or geographic region. For example, "French" cuisine might be something a customer is interested in experiencing.

Culinary Tourism
Defined as the pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking experiences. By combining travel with these edible experiences, culinary tourism offers both locals and tourists alike, an authentic taste of a specific culture or geographic region.

Cultural Tourism
A category of travel that is inspired by a region's culture and history.

Culture
Similar shared traits or characteristics unique to an ethnic group, region or nation.

Custom Tour
A travel package created specifically for an individual, group or niche market.

Customer
The buyer of a product or service. Also called consumer, passenger, guest, patron, member, etc.

CVB
Convention and Visitors Bureau. Primarily the same thing as a DMO or a TPA.

Database
A computerized, organized collection of individual customer information.

Day Rate
Also called a day room. A reduced rate granted for the use of a guest room during the daytime, and without overnight occupancy. This is usually provided on a tour when a very late flight (a red eye flight) is involved.

Deadheading
This refers to a (airline), crew or vehicle/aircraft that makes a trip or segment off-duty or without passengers in order to properly position its resources.

Debark
To get off an airplane or passenger ship. Also called disembark.

Deck
The floor area of a ship. Some cruise liners have as many as 11 or more decks.

Deck Plan
The drawing representing the location of the decks, public rooms, cabins, etc. of a cruise ship.

Demand Generators
Strategies and programs developed by DMOs and travel suppliers to generate demand for their destination or travel product. Examples might include festivals, events, cultural tours, and consumer promotions.

Demands
A consumer's wants backed by the ability to purchase.

Demographics
Population measurements such as age, gender, income, education, race/ethnicity, religion, marital status, household income, size and occupation. These are the main metrics that marketers use when developing their marketing plans (include demand generation ideas).

Denied-Boarding Compensation
Refers to payment (usually in the form of a voucher), given to those bumped from a flight.

Department of State
The US government agency that (among other responsibilities) issues travel cautions and warnings concerning travel to specific points around the world. Warnings might be issued for areas with political unrest or with high security concerns.

Departure Point
The location or destination from which a customer or a tour officially begins. For example, many Alaskan cruises have a departure point from Seattle or Vancouver.

Departure Tax
A fee charged by a country when a person is departing/leaving that country.

Deplane
To disembark, or get off of an airplane.

Deposit
An advance payment required to obtain and confirm a reservation.

Deposit Policy
The official policy of a travel supplier that specifies the amount or percentage of the total bill that is due on a specified date prior to arrival to guarantee the reservation.

Destination
The geographic place to which a traveler is going.

Destination Alliance
A DMO that operates as a for-profit association on behalf of a select group of suppliers (usually in the same region) who form a paid-membership network to promote their services and products to travelers. For example, the DM), I Love NY, operates on behalf of those members in the NYC area to promote destination to travel to NYC.

Destination Management Company (DMC)
A for-profit company that operates similar to a CVB (Convention and Visitors Bureau), by planning and executing services for the convention and meeting market.

Destination Marketing Organization (DMO)
An organization that promotes a location (city, region state, country), as a travel destination.

Destination Wedding
A category of travel where couples celebrate their marriage at a destination away from their home.

Dine-around-plan
A meal plan, usually prepaid, that allows one to dine at various restaurants in the area.

Direct Access
Refers to a travel agent's ability to get directly into an airlines database to get true (real time) last-seat availability and correct pricing - a big difference between internal far "quotes and an agent's CRS (Computer Reservation System).

Direct Flight
A flight that goes from a traveler's origin to their final destination with one or more intermediate stops. No change in aircraft occurs so the passenger remains on the same plane (although they may be asked to disembark for a time). For example, San Francisco to New York, but with a stop in Chicago.

Direct Marketing
Sales and marketing communication that directly interacts with the customer without any distribution intermediaries (like travel agents). For example an airline may communicate directly to the passenger through email or regular mail and bypass the distribution or sales channel.

Disaster Tourism
Travel that takes place when tourists intentionally go to an area that may be or may have been affected by natural disaster, civil strife or warfare -- usually with the intention of helping the area recover.

Disclaimer
A legal document that advises clients that a travel agent acts only as a middleman in the sale of travel products and that any liability ultimately lies with the supplier (e.g. airline, hotel, car rental, tour operator, railway, etc.).

DMC
Destination Management Company

DMO
Destination Management Organization. A destination marketing organization is an entity that promotes a town, city, region, or country to increase visitation. It promotes the development and marketing of a destination, focusing on convention sales, tourism marketing, and services. The primary goal of a DMO is to create and implement strategic marketing plans around tourism, bringing local tourism businesses together and helping them to work collectively. This transforms a set of attractions, activities and services into a cohesive and compelling travel experience.

Docent
A tour guide who works free of charge at a museum

Domestic Fare
An additional fare added to an international flight/fare.

Double Booking
An unorthodox practice of holding two or more reservations for a similar itinerary but through different travel suppliers, when only one reservation will be used. This typically is seen with airlines with different schedules which gives travelers flexibility to choose and still cancel. Airlines do try to prevent this by searching for possible duplications, if it's within their own schedule/system.

Double Double
A hotel room with two double beds.

Double Occupancy
The way in which almost all cruise fares and tour packages are quoted which is based on two people traveling together. Most hotel rooms are quoted based on two adults to a room.

Double Occupancy Rate
The price per person for a room to be shared with another person. The rate most frequently quoted in tour brochures.

Double Room Rate
The full price of a room for two people (twice the double-occupancy rate).

Downgrade
To move to a lesser level of accommodations or lower class of service. For example a passenger might be downgraded from First Class to Coach Class because there was a change in aircraft or because the cabin was oversold.

Driver Guide
A tour guide who does double duty by driving the vehicle while narrating the tour.

Driver Guided Tours
A tour guided by an individual that operates a vehicle while providing commentary in a front-line position who leads participants, (individual or groups) on tours, ensures that itineraries are followed, provides commentary in an informative and entertaining manner, and creates positive experiences for tour participants.

Drop-Off Charge
The fee added to a car rental when the vehicle is returned to a different city than the one it was originally rented from. For example if you rent a car in San Diego and return it to Los Angeles (LAX), there may be a drop off fee for the car company to reposition the car back to San Diego.

Duty Free Imports
Item amounts and categories specified by a government that are free of taxes or duty charges when brought into the country. Often called DFS (Duty Free Services), these facilities can be seen in airport departure areas after security, as well as on board some international flights.

E-Ticket
Refers to an electronic ticket - usually regarding transportation -- air, train or rail.

Early Check In
A customer perk/benefit that allows a guest to check in at an earlier time than the standard check-in time. Many airlines offer this feature for an additional fee, which may be beneficial to the customer depending on their need for early boarding, seat preference, etc.

Eco-Conscious Travel
Travel with the awareness of environmental impact.

Eco-Sustainable Tourism
Tourism directed toward exotic, often threatened, natural environments, especially to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.

Economic Impact Study (EIS)
Research into the dollars generated by an industry and how these dollars might impact the local economy through the direct spending and indirect impact of additional job creation and the generation of income and tax revenue. For example, a hotel or a community, will likely conduct an EIS to assess the economic impact of building a new hotel in the area so they can properly determine overall impact to the community in terms of cost, jobs, future revenue, resources required, etc..

Ecotour
A tour designed to focus on preserving the environment or to environmentally sensitive areas.

Ecotourism
Tourism directed at exotic and/or endangered destinations while fostering environmental understanding and conservation.

Educational Tour
A tour designed around an educational activity or experience like study art, painting or learning another language.

Elder Hostel
A hostel catering to seniors.

Electronic Ticket
A paperless ticket that allows travelers to fly with only their photo ID and an electronic image of their reservation and boarding pass via their smart phone or tablet. Commonly referred to as an E-Ticket, they cannot be lost or stolen because it is an electronic reservation.

Embark
The action of boarding a plane or cruise ship.

En Suite
A term in the hotel industry which indicates that a certain feature(s), is directly in the room or adjacent to that room. Most often refers to a bathroom being within the set of rooms.

English Breakfast
Basic meal of cereal, juice, eggs, meats, and other beverages. Common with most hotels in the UK.

Errors and Omissions Insurance
Incusrance coverage equivalent to malpractice insurance, protecting an agent's or operator's staff if an act of negligence, an error, or an omission occurs that causes a client great hardship or expense.

Escort
Someone who leads or conducts a tour of a group.

Escorted Group Tour
A group tour that features a tour director who travels with the group throughout the trip to provide sightseeing commentary and coordinates all group movement and activities.

Escrow Accounts
Funds placed in the custody of licensed financial institutions for safekeeping. Many contracts in travel require that travel agents and tour operators maintain customers' deposits and prepayments in escrow accounts.

Estimated Time of Arrival
This is literally the estimated time of the transport's arrival; Opposed to the ATA (Actual Time of Arrival), the ETA is the time the flight or transport is expected to arrive.

Estuary
A body of water connecting a flowing river and larger body, such as a sea or ocean. This is the transition point.

ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival

ETD
Estimated Time of Departure

Ethnicity
A term that denotes belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition or identity.

Ethno-Tourism
Tourism that is focused on the exploration of indigenous populations and their respective culture and traditions.

Eurailpass
A special fared ticket that allows either unlimited train travel, or travel for a certain period of time throughout many European countries (except in Britain, where the Britrailpass offers similar travel in England, Scotland and Wales).

European Plan
A rate at a hotel that does not include meals.

Excess Baggage
Checked luggage that exceeds the weight limitation of the expressed baggage allowance policy by the specific airline. Excess baggage fees vary by carrier, but tend to be very expensive.

Exchange order
See voucher

Exclusive Fare
Discounted airfares offered by travel consolidators

Excursion
A side trip from a main destination, usually optional and at an added cost. For example, land excursions might be available as an added option when a cruise ship docks in a port.

Excursion Fare
Special airline fares with restrictions such as minimum and maximum stays.

Exotic Travel
Exotic travel refers to a category of travel that is strikingly, excitingly and mysteriously different or unusual. Exotic travel is travel that is completely different than what a traveler is accustomed to and is highly subjective in nature.

Experiential Travel
Also known as immersion travel, this is a form of tourism in which people focus on experiencing a country, city or particular place by connecting to its history, people and culture.

FAM Trip
Familiarization Tour or Trip. FAMS are marketing initiatives, inviting either media or travel trade professionals to tour a region or destination to experience it firsthand. Experience it helps them write about it or sell it as a product to their customers. The activities on a FAM are typically shorter than what the actual visitor might experience. They provide a sampling of what is offered.

Familiarity Tour
A familiarity tour as used in the travel industry is a tour of a travel destination, accommodation, activity or mode of transportation to familiarize a travel adviser and provide knowledge and direct experience with the product or service so they can better service and sell to their clients.

Family Plan
A plan offered by most hotels that allows children to stay in the same room as their parents at no additional charge. Age requirements vary between hotels.

Family Vacation
A family vacation is a travel category referring to travel involving family members. It is also commonly referred to as multi-generational travel.

Familymoon
A term to describe honeymoon travel by a newly wed couple that brings their children from previous relationships.

Fare Aggregator
These are online search engines that redirect the users to an airline, cruise, hotel or car rental site or online travel agent for the final purchase of a ticket. An aggregator's business model includes getting pricing and scheduling information (feeds) from major OTAs, then displaying the results on one screen for easy comparison. The OTA then fulfills the purchase of the ticket. Aggregators generate revenue through advertising dollars and by charging OTAs for client referals.

Fare Basis
The letters and numbers assigned to a specific fare and serve as its identification number.

Fare Basis (Code)
The code that determines the price of an airline ticket.

Final Boarding Call
The last call or announcement by the airline's gate agents to board the aircraft before the jetway closes and the flight departs.

First Class
The class of service on an airline that offers premium service and amenities. These amenities may include preferred seating (wider seats and more leg room at the front of the airplane), as well as meal selection and complimentary drink offerings.

First Officer
Pilot who is second in command. The pilot in the cockpit sitting on the right with three stripes.

Fishing Trips and Tours
A specific travel/tour category where groups of fishermen are provided guided tours and typically with lodging for the overall purpose of catching a specific fish.

FIT
Foreign Independent Traveler. An international family or small group traveling to the USA. They arrive by airplane and usually rent cars for transportation.

Fjord
A narrow inlet from the ocean, usually bound by cliffs and with spectacular scenery. Most are located in Alaska, Norway and New Zealand.

Flag Carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations. For example, under the law of the United States, a U.S. flag air carrier is any airline that holds a certificate under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (i.e., any U.S.-based airline operating internationally), and any ship registered in the United States is known as a U.S. flag vessel.

Fleet
A group of transportation vessels, airplanes or vehicles.

Flight Attendant
Part of the airline cabin crew that is on board to ensure safety and comfort of the passengers on an aircraft.

Flight Crew
Sometimes called the aircrew, the flight crew consists of everyone hired by the airline on a flight, including the pilots, pursers and flight attendants.

Fly Drive
A vacation package that includes both air transportation and a rental car. Many international tourists (FITs) prefer to buy these types of packages to explore a destination.

Folio
An itemized record of a guest's charges and credits which are maintained in the front office until check-out/departure. Also referred to as a guest bill or guest statement.

Force Majeure
An event or ef­fect that cannot be reasonably anticipated or controlled (such as a storm or a war).

Frequent Flier
One who flies frequently.

Frequent Flier Program
A program that a traveler can enroll in that earns them rewards (like free flights) on a particular airline for every mile they fly. This builds customer loyalty for the airline. Also referred to as frequency program or loyalty program.

Front-line Staff
People who interact with and give service to customers, guests and visitors. For example, front desk staff at a hotel or a cashier at an attraction.

Full House
A hotel with all guest rooms occupied.

Full Service hotel
A hotel with restaurant facilities on property.

Function Room
A special room in a hotel that is used primarily for private parties, banquets, and meetings. Also called banquet, meeting and conference rooms.

Funnel Flight
Also called a feeder flight, this is a flight (typically a regional or commuter carrier), that feeds traffic to larger planes which continue on to further destinations. For example, a regional carrier that serves Cheyenne, WY might "feed or funnel" local traffic into the Denver hub for connection to destinations of greater distance.

fuselage
The aircraft's main body section (the cylindrical) or the central part of the airplane that contains the cabin, crew, passengers and cargo.

Galley
The kitchen/kitchenette area of an airplane, train or a ship. For airplanes, the galley is likely small with a simple arrangement for inflight food and beverage service.

Gate (Airport)
The specific area within an airport where passengers board their plane for a flight. Gates are located on concourses which are extensions of the main terminal. The gate areas are secure areas and access is available only for ticketed passengers or authorized personnel who have passed through security check points or have security clearance.

Gateway
A city, airport or area from which a flight or tour departs.

GDS
Global Distribution System is a reservation system that contains information about price, schedule, availability and related services for airlines, car rental companies, rail companies, etc. through which reservations can be made and tickets issued. A GDS also makes some or all of these functions available to subscribing travel agents, booking engines and airlines. GDS leaders include Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre and Worldspan.

Geo Tourism
Tourism that sustains or enhances the distinctive geographical character of a place.

Glamping
Glamping is a portmanteau (or a linguistic blend of two words), of glamorous and camping and describes a style of camping with amenities and, in some cases, resort-style services not usually associated with "traditional" camping.

Global Distribution System (GDS)
An international computer reservation system used by Buyers (travel agents), that provides access to multiple databases of airlines and travel suppliers (hotels, car rentals, etc.) to show availability and provide reservation booking capability. Top GDS providers include Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre and Worldspan.

Goods and Services Tax (GST)
A tax levied in Canadian Provinces.

Graduation Travel
A milestone category of travel related to the celebration of a graduation, typically from high school or college.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Solar based time in Greenwich, England, of which time in all other time zones in the world is based.

Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT)
A measurement of the enclosed space in a ship. Cruise ships in the 70,000 ton range are considered to be "super-liners".

Ground Operator
See Receptive Operator

Group
Several persons (usually 10 or more), traveling together. Group travel is often available at discounted rates.

Group Leader
The person who accompanies and/or leads people on a group tour. They work for the Group Tour Operator who sells the tour package.

Group Rate
A negotiated rate on travel (air, hotel, tour) that incentivizes large groups to book together.

Group Tour
Refers to a category of travel for groups arranged by an outside company or organization. Some groups are small, private and escorted, while others are large.

Group Tour Operator
A person who puts together vacation packages for groups. They sell these packages as products to consumers. They are also considered Buyers.

Guaranteed Share
A cruise term that promises that a companion will be found for a single passenger, at a special rate. That rate will be honored even if the cruise line is unable to find a cabin mate. The rte is usually the going double-rate at that time and is much less than the single person rate per cabin.

Guaranteed Tour
A tour guaranteed to operate unless canceled before an established cutoff date (usually 60 days prior to departure).

Guest Houses
A private house offering accommodations to paying guests.

Guest Ranch
Also known as a dude ranch this is a type of ranch oriented towards visitors and tourism. It is considered a form of agri-tourism.

Guide
A person or company qualified to conduct tours of specific localities or attractions.

Guided Tour
A local sightseeing trip conducted by a tour guide that offers narration and information along the way.

Half Pension
A hotel rate that includes breakfast and one other meal, usually dinner. Sometimes called a Modified American Plan (MAP) or demi-pension

Hard Copy
A printed version of a document such as an airline ticket or a hotel voucher.

Head Tax
A fee charged for arriving and departing passengers in some foreign countries.

Hidden-City Ticketing
Another unorthodox version of ticketing that describes buying a ticket from Point A to Point C with a stopover in Point B. The passenger gets off at point B, which was their intended destination in the first place. This ticket is purchased because the A-B-C version is less expensive that the A-B version. Airlines do not permit this and if there is downline space booked on the same ticket, (like the return segments), it is subject to cancellation if this is discovered. This also goes against TSA guidelines because of securities issues (like a passenger not being on a flight when they were documented to be so). It is an UNADVISABLE practice. Also, many airlines will often make all passengers disembark and then re-board so there is a risk for the passenger to be outed.

High Season
The time of year when a destination gets the highest number of travelers and thus has the highest airline fares, hotel room rates, car rental rates, etc., because customer demand is so high.

Hiking Trips and Tours
A category of travel where the traveler is walking or hiking as the major mode of transportation between two destinations, but likely with airfare and hotel a necessary component to begin and end the trip. For example, the famous Camino de Santiago, is an epic Catholic pilgrimage to the Spanish city of Santiago de Compostela. It is a 500 mile hike from the French Pyrenees to Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain.

Honeymoon Travel
A category of travel where a newly married couple travels while celebrating their marriage. Destinations often include exotic or beach locations.

Hosted Group Tour
A group tour that features a representative (the host) of the tour operator, destination, or other tour provider, who interacts with the group only for a few hours a day to provide information and arrange transportation. The host usually does not accompany the group as it travels.

Hostel
An inexpensive overnight room accommodation that is usually dormitory style and popular with the student crowd. Often referred to as "youth hostel".

Hotel
An establishment providing room night accommodations, meals, and other services for travelers and tourists. Hotels take on many forms. See specific references to Boutique, Lodge, Chain, etc.

Hub
A city in which an airline has a major presence and significant flight activity. The hub is often the city in which the airline is headquartered/founded. Airlines often have multiple hubs to optimize the efficiency of their aircraft and service to their customers.

Hub and Spoke Itinerary
A travel routing design that uses a central destination (the hub city) as the departure and return point for day trips to outlying destinations and attractions (the spoke cities).

Hurricane Season
A season primarily in the Southeastern United States and the Caribbean. Usually June 1 through November 1 when storms are most likely to occur and may warrant additional travel advisories and precautions.

IATA
The International Air Transport Association supports aviation with global standards for airline safety, security, efficiency and sustainability.

IATAN
International Airlines Travel Agent Network administers the IATAN card, the only widely accepted form of legitimate travel agent identification.

ICTA
Institute of Certified Travel Agents located in Wellesley, MA.

Illegal Connection
Flights that are booked with less than the required minimum connect time -- where the time between landing and taking off on the next flight does not adhere to the legal minimum requirements.

In Season
Meaning a travel service or product is only available during a certain time of year (in a season).

In Transit
En route or in the process of traveling.

In-flight Service
The service received when traveling on board an airplane. Often includes beverages, (sometimes meals), movies, Wifi, and any other service that might be of convenience and comfort to the customer during a flight.

Inbound Operator
Agencies that specialize in providing tour packages to international travelers visiting the USA. Also known as Receptive Operators. Travel agents from foreign countries will work with inbound receptive operators to find a travel package that is suitable for their customer. Examples include TourMappers and ATI.

Inbound Tour
A tour for groups of travelers whose trip originates in another location and usually in another country.

Incentive Tour
A trip offered as a prize, particularly to stimulate the productivity of employees or sales agents.

Incentive Travel
Travel as a reward for an employee's outstanding performance.

Incidental Charges
Items and services billed to a room after their use, such as movies, phone calls, etc.

Incidentals
Charges incurred by the participants of a tour, but are not included in the tour price. These charges usually refer to personal usage things like phone calls, waters - mostly small things.

Inclusive Tour
A package tour that bundles transportation, accommodations, transfers, sightseeing, and possibly some meals, etc. altogether at one price.

Independent Tour
A travel package in which a tour operator is involved only with the planning, marketing and selling of the package, but is not involved with the passengers while the tour is in progress.

Inside Cabin
Refers to a stateroom aboard a ship that has no window, but is an interior cabin. It is typically priced less than cabins with windows.

Intercontinental
Travel between two continents. Not to be confused with Transcontinental which is travel across one/singular continent.

Interline Connection
A trip with a connection to or from a different airline. For example a customer traveling on United Airlines from Los Angeles to Denver connections to American Airlines from Denver to New York. This is an interline connection.

Intermodal Tour
A tour that uses several forms of transportation (or multiple modes), such as an airplane, motor coach, cruise ship and/or train.

International Air Transport Association
Also known as IATA supports aviation with global standards for airline safety, security, efficiency and sustainability.

International Date Line
The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups. Because of it, it is possible to leave one destination on one day and arrive in another destination the day before.

International Rate Desk
Utilizes all available resources to ensure the lowest fare for your selected itinerary, including splitting tickets, consolidator fares, and available discounts.

Itinerary
The planned route for a trip. This is what the travel trade professionals sell to their customers. It is a pre-planned experience with where to go, when and what to expect when you get there.

Jet Bridge
An enclosed, movable connector which extends from a terminal gate to a plane, allowing passengers to board and disembark without having to go outside. Also called a Jetway.

Jet lag
A temporary sleep problem that can affect anyone who quickly travels across multiple time zones. It is an interruption of one's biological/natural clock.

Jones Act
A law dating back to 1886 that forbids foreign-flagged ships from carrying passengers between US ports with no foreign port stops in between.

Jump Seat
A flight term referring to an auxiliary (extra) seat for persons who are not operating the aircraft, such as the cabin crew or perhaps a trainee. Employees must be qualified to ride in the jump seat.

Kilometer
A measure of distance using the metric system (and used in almost all other countries outside the United States). Equal to about 5/8 mile.

King Room
A hotel room that has a king sized bed.

Knot
A nautical measure of speed equaling approximately 1.5 miles per hour (MPH). A ship traveling at 15 knots is traveling at about 22 MPH.

KPH
Kilometers per hour. A land speed measurement in most countries outside the United States. 60 KPH is equal to approximately 36 MPH.

Land Arrangements
All non-flying reservations upon arrival such as hotel, car rental, tour reservations, etc. Often referred to as just "Land".

Land Destinations
A land destination or travel destination is a place to which one is journeying, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or man made beauty, offering leisure, adventure and amusement.

Land Only
A rate that does NOT include air transportation and usually refers to most other land-based charges such as hotel accommodations, transfers, taxes and perhaps other optional items like theme park tickets, car rental, etc. Basically everything except air.

Land Transfers
Travel by train, bus, limo, taxi, uber to/from an accommodation, airplane or cruise ship.

Last Seat Availability
The ability of the travel agent to see/buy (get) the last seat for their customer on a specific flight.

Late Booking Fee
A fee due if travel arrangements are made at the last minute. This normally covers the cost of express or 'next day' delivery of documents and other last-minute arrangements that may have to be made by a tour operator.

Late Checkout
A more exclusive perk for some guests (frequent travelers or members of a program) that allow a few extra hours to check out from the normal time.

Latitude
Imaginary horizontal lines of angular distance, measured in degrees north or south of the equator.

Layover
The period of time spent between connecting flights on the ground.

Lead-in Price
Refers to the lowest available price for a travel product/service, often pertaining to cabins on a cruise ship. Usually there are only a few staterooms available on board each cruise liner in this category, but often better accommodations are only slightly higher in price.

Leeward
The side of a ship or an island that is located opposite from the direction of the prevailing wind- the "Leeward Islands" in the Caribbean for example or the leeward side of the island.

Leg
Portion of a journey between two scheduled stops.

Leisure Travel
Usually refers to personal travel (versus business travel), like relaxation, vacation, or to visit friends and relatives/family (also referred to as VFR).

Letter of agreement
A letter from the buyer to the supplier accepting the terms of a proposal. This may also be the supplier's first proposal that has been initialed by the buyer.

Lido Deck
Usually the deck on a cruise ship that surrounds the pool area.

Limited Service Hotel
A hotel without a restaurant on the premises.

List Broker
An aggregator and seller of mail lists (emails, addresses, etc.), used for direct marketing purposes.

Load Factor
The number of passengers traveling on a vehicle, vessel or aircraft compared to the number of available seats or cabins. For example if the load factor on Flight 123 from LAX to NYC is 80%, this means that 80% of the aircraft is full or booked and 20% remain available and for sale.

Lodging
Any establishment that provides shelter and overnight accommodations to travelers.

Logistics
Management of the details of an operation, a project, program or event.

Loss Damage Waiver (LDW)
Supplementary car rental insurance that covers theft, vandalism, and accidents while using a rental car.

Low season
The period in which a travel supplier (destination, airline, hotel, etc.), experiences its lowest prices and the fewest number of guests.

Lower Bed
Refers to a cruise stateroom and the bed on the floor as opposed to the higher bunk bed (upper bed).

Lowest Available Fare
The least expensive fare that is available on a specific flight or day or time period.

Luxury Class
The most expensive, high class accommodations or category of fare, like a suite or first class.

Luxury Cruise
The most comfortable and convenient way to see the world. Ships are usually smaller in size so the ratio of crew and staff is generally higher than other cruise ships offering that premium service and attention to detail to be expected of exquisite vacations.

Luxury Ocean Cruise
A luxury ocean cruise is an ocean cruise on a luxury cruise line used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself an the ship's amenities are a part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way.

Luxury Travel
A high-end category of travel that is defined by ultimate comfort, attention to the smallest detail, and extravagance of amenities for the customer.

Macro Environment
A business/economic term that refers to those broad forces in society and the business world that impact most companies (e.g. recession or war).

Management Company
A company or corporation that owns and manages several hotel or lodging properties.

Manifest
Final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel (airplane, train, ship).

Market
All existing and potential customers for a product or service.

Market Demand
Market demand refers to the collective/total demand of all consumers of a specific product or service at a given price, with other factors as income, tastes, and preferences, prices of other goods being constant. It is called 'market' demand because it depicts the market (the collective demand), situation for a good or service. Expressed as a quantity as in number of flights or seats between two destinations, or number of hotel rooms for a given day or time of year.

Market forecast
The realistic demand projections within a given time period by all companies within a specified industry offering/producing the same or similar product. For example the market forecast for hotel rooms in Fort Lauderdale during spring break would be the expectation based on history and market conditions going into the respective period.

Marketing Mix
A variable combination of factors (the "4 Ps" of marketing), that can be created and controlled by a company to influence consumers to purchase its products and/or services, including product, price, promotion and place (distribution).

Marketing Plan
A written document that details a company's marketing objectives for a product or service, and recommends strategies for achieving these objectives.

Marketing Research
The function that links the consumer, customer and public to the marketer through the systematic gathering and analysis of information.

Markup Pricing
Pricing a product by adding a standard markup to costs. Also called cost-plus pricing.

Master Account
A hotel term referring to the guest account for a particular group, company or function that will be paid by the sponsoring or master organization.

Maximum Stay
The longest period of time a traveler can stay at a particular hotel and still qualify for the promotion or discounted fare.

Media
Communication channels in which consumers receive information, including being exposed to advertising messages. Included are broadcast (TV, radio), print (newspapers, magazines, direct mail), outdoor (billboards), and multi-media (social media, internet).

Meet and Greet Service
A pre-purchased service for meeting and greeting clients upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier or rail station, and assisting clients with entrance formalities, including collecting baggage and obtaining ground transportation.

Meeting/Conference Tour
A tour designed around a specific meeting or conference for the participants in attendance.

Micro Environment
Those forces that are specific or close to a company that directly impact operations, sales and marketing programs.

Midships
A directional term, amidships or midships is the center of the vessel or aircraft.

Minimum Connect Time
The amount of transfer time, agreed in advance between airlines and airport authorities, that is considered sufficient for a passenger to make a connection between an arriving flight and a departing flight. Minimum connect time varies by airport with some domestic (US) airports requiring as little as 30 minutes for same airline connections, and some international airports (like London Heathrow - LHR for example), requiring 1:30 minutes for changing airline terminals within the airport.

Minimum Stay
The minimum number of days a traveler can stay at a particular hotel or home-stay rental and still qualify for the promotion or discounted fare. This is common during high season (holiday and summer). This has become a more prevalent requirement with individual home rentals like Air B&B, Home Away and VRBO.

Mission Statement
The concise description of what an organization is, its purpose and what it intends to accomplish.

Modified American Plan (MAP)
A meal plan that includes two daily meals, usually breakfast and dinner.

Motorcoach
Large passenger bus. This is the vehicle most often used for people traveling in group tours.

Multi-generational Travel
A travel category referring to travel with parents, siblings, kids, grandkids, etc. with the goal to broaden horizons and provide opportunities to reconnect through shared experiences.

Murder Mystery Tour
A tour that features a staged "murder" and involves travelers in solving the crime.

Mystery Tour
A journey to unpublicized destinations in which tour takers are not told where they will be going until they are en route or have arrived!

NACTA
National Association of Career Travel Agents is a trade group representing primarily independent and home-based travel agents. This organization is now a part of ASTA (American Society of Travel Agents), and is now the ASTA Small Business Network.

National Tourism Organization (NTO)
The National Tourist Organization (NTO) is the body responsible for the formulation and implementation of national tourist policy. It is the proper agency and instrument for the execution of the national government's responsibilities for the control, direction and promotion of tourism.

Nautical Mile
Unit of length that is about one minute of arc of latitude along any meridian, but is approximately one minute of arc of longitude. Air-Sea distance measurement of approximately 1.1. statue miles.

Negotiated Rate
A discounted rate offered to a travel agent or company based on a volume of business agreed to at the time.

Net Fare
The price/fare of an airline ticket before it has any commission or tax added to it.

Net Rate
This refers to hotel room inventory that is sold via a third-party distributor at prices subject to commission. The Net Rate is the price for a hotel room without the commission added on. These distributors could be a travel agent, receptive tour operator or an online travel agent. Also see Rack Rate.

Niche Market
A highly specialized segment of the travel market, such as an affinity group with a unique special interest.

No Show
A traveler that does not appear or "show up" for their flight, hotel or car rental reservation, without officially canceling the reservation. Often times there will be a penalty for a No Show. If there is a No Show on the first segment of an airline trip, this will trigger a cancellation for all remaining segments.

Non-Refundable
A ticket in which no money will be refunded to the customer if they cancel the reservation.

Non-Transferable
A ticket that can only be used by the person who was originally on the reservation.

Nonstop
A flight that travels directly to its destination without any stops, connections or layovers.

NTA (National Tour Association)
The National Tour Association is one of the largest trade organizations for the group tour market. They have an annual Travel Exchange where several thousand tour operators and suppliers meet to create business for all. NTA has a partnership with the Department of Commerce to vet all Chinese tour operators that want to sell tours of the United States. The China Inbound Program  (https://ntaonline.com/chinainbound/) currently has more than 200 members.

NTSB
Based in Washington D.C., the National Transportation and Safety Board is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation.

Objective and Task Method
A process for creating a marketing/promotion budget that sets objectives first (before budget), then defines the tasks needed to achieve those objectives, and then commits funds necessary to perform the tasks. This is the opposite of a budget-based method which starts with an expense budget.

Occupancy Rate
The percentage of all available hotel rooms at a given property that is either estimated/expected/projected or actual during any given day or period of time. For example the Occupancy Rate for a ski lodge on December 31 will likely be 100% versus that same property during May which may be closer to 30%.

OCV
Refers to an ocean view - usually in reference to a hotel.

Off-Peak
A less expensive time to travel as the result of lower consumer demand/volume. Off-Peak usually refers to off-season travel like flying to Arizona during August.

Offline Connection
A connection that requires switching to both a new airline carrier and a new aircraft (changing planes).

Onsite
An on-site expert travel provider is someone that lives in the country they serve and has firsthand knowledge and long-standing relationships with all aspects of travel in their country.

Open Jaw
A trip in which the origination city and the city in which the customer is returning from is different. For example, someone traveling from Dallas to Austin and then San Antonio to Dallas. The customer travels from Austin to San Antonio by other means of travel.

Operator
Any company that provides any transportation service. Not just limited to air travel, but includes trains, buses, limousines, taxis, ride share and cruise ships.

Option Date
The "drop dead" date on which a reservation must be deposited or cancellation will result.

Optionals
Optional tour features that are not included in the base tour price, such as sightseeing excursions or special activities.

OTA
Online Travel Agencies like Expedia, Priceline and Orbitz.

Outbound
The departure leg or segment of a journey.

Outbound Operator
A company that takes groups from a given city or country to another city or country.

Outbound Tour
A tour that takes travelers out of the area, usually from a domestic city to another country.

Outside Salesperson
The job description of an employee who sells travel but is not based at the agency or in the agency location most of the time.

Overbook
Accepting reservations for more space than is available.

Overbooking
When a travel supplier books more reservations than available product. This is mostly prevalent with airlines who overbook most flights in an effort to fly full (and account for No Shows), but can also happen with hotels, car rentals and all areas of the travel experience.

Overhead
Those fixed costs involved in regular operations of a business like rent, insurance, salaries and utilities.

Packaged Travel
A package in combination of two or more types of tour components into a singular product which is produced, assembled, promoted and sold as a package by a tour operator for an all-inclusive price.

Passenger Facility Charge (PFC)
An additional fee for use of the airport facility.

Passenger Name Record (PNR)
The official name of a customer's reservation in a computer reservations system (CRS).

Passport/Visa Service
A service that will take your passport and hand carry, if necessary, to the appropriate embassy in order to expedite a visa. This can be expensive, but necessary if a customer has waited until the last minute to obtain the appropriate travel visa.

Patronage Program
A program that rewards the customer for loyalty and repeat purchases. More commonly referred to as a frequent flyer program for airlines and a frequent stay program for hotels.

Peninsula
A piece of land that is connected to a mainland or larger piece of land on only one side, while the other sides are surrounded by water.

Per Capita Costs
Costs per person.

Per Diem
A daily allowance or a specific amount of money allocated each day for expenses for tours or cruise ship passengers.

Perceived Value
A marketing term describing value. Also known as customer-perceived value, this is the difference between a prospective customer's evaluation of the benefits and costs of one product when compared with others. ... The sources of value are not equally important to all consumers. Perceived versus actual.

Personal Effects Coverage
Additional car rental insurance covering loss of personal property from the rental car company.

Point to Point
Refers to the fare between two cities.

Port
The place where a ship docks. A place visited by cruise ships. Also a directional term referring to the left side of the cruise vessel.

Port Charges/Taxes
Fees or taxes levied by local authorities upon the cruise line for each passenger visiting a port of call, normally added to the total cruise price.

Port of Debarkation
The geographic point where personnel arrive on a cruise vessel.

Port of Embarkation
The geographic point where personnel depart on a cruise vessel

Port of Entry
Destination providing customs and immigration services.

Porter
A person who handles luggage at an airport or train station. Also called a skycap or baggage handler.

Porthole
Usually a round, sealed window in a ship's stateroom.

Posada
A small country hotel (Spanish).

Positioning Strategy
Positioning strategy is a marketing term that refers to the strategy or the plan that a company establishes for its brand or a specific product/service. It is the intended perception or take-away in the minds of its customers. It is an involved process which may include how it is distinguishable from the competition. In order to position products or brands, companies may emphasize the unique selling points (USP), of their brand (what it is, what it does and how, etc.) or they may try to create a suitable image or personality, (inexpensive or premium, utilitarian or luxurious, entry-level or high-end, etc.) through the marketing mix. Once a brand has achieved a strong position, it can become difficult to reposition it.

Postive Space
The seats or space aboard an aircraft or a ship that can be confirmed ahead of time. This is the opposite of "Space Available" which means your seat or reservation can be confirmed only if there is space available at the time of the departure.

PPDO
Per Person Double Occupancy. Most tours and cruises are quoted this way which is the average cost to say in a particular location per day.

Pre and Post Trip Tour
An optional extension or side trip package before and/or after a meeting, convention or gathering.

Pre-Deduct Commission
When a distributor such as a travel agent takes their commission up-front on the sale and sends the supplier the balance of the sales price - versus the commission being paid after the sale.

Preferred Supplier
The selection of specific supplier(s) for priority promotion to customers and/or integration in travel packages in exchanged for reduced rates and/or higher commission.

Preferred Vendor
The vendor(s) a company specifies as their first choice for travelers.

Preformed Group
A pre-existing collection of travelers, such as affinity groups and travel clubs, whose members share a common interest or organizational affiliation.

Prepaid Ticket Advice
A form used when purchasing an airline ticket to be picked up and used by someone else at another airport. E-Tickets have reduced the need for this almost entirely.

Prix Fixe
Meals offered at a fixed price, (with high value), consisting of several courses with no substitutions allowed. Common in Europe.

Profit Margin
The amount by which revenue from sales exceeds costs in a business.

Promotional Group Tour
A travel package composed of tour elements that match the specific needs and wants of its niche customers who are not parent of an organized group.

Promotional Mix
A mix of promotional tools that include advertising (traditional and digital), direct marketing, sales promotion, public relations and any other form of customer communication that supports purchase.

Promotional Partnership
The combination or partnership of two or more companies to offers special incentives to their same customer audience.

Proof of Affiliation
A document demonstrating a traveler’s eligibility to fly on a specialized fare (such as a student ID for a student fare or a letter from a nonprofit stating involvement for a humanitarian fare).

Prop
Slang term referring to a propeller-driven aircraft.

Property
A specific lodging structure such as a hotel and the surrounding grounds. Also a general term that may be used by a place of accommodation that denotes the facility.

Protection Overbooking
The practice of blocking space that will likely be in excess of what will actually be needed.

Pseudo-agent
Someone claiming to be a travel agent who really isn't. They often produce fake/bogus ID cards, and can disappear when problems arise.

Psychographics
the study, classification and measurement of people according to their lifestyle, attitudes, aspirations, and other psychological criteria, especially in market research.

Public Relations
The professional development, management and maintenance of a favorable public image by a company or other organization or a famous person. The state of the relationship between the public and a company or other organization or a famous person. Also part of the marketing mix due to the opportunity for "free press or promotion" through the channel of public image management. For example if a company sponsors a charity event and it is covered favorably in the media, there is a positive impact to the company's brand.

Published Fare
A fare immediately offered to the public for purchase by the airline. This does not include heavily discounted flights or bulk fares that are usually offered to consolidators.

Pull Strategy
A marketing approach that creates demand at the customer level by generating awareness, interest and desire to purchase or "pull" the customer through a distribution channel by demanding it. The counterpart to pull marketing is push marketing which creates demand at the distributor level and "pushes" demand/product to the customer.

Push Strategy
A marketing approach that creates demand at the distributor channel (e.g. the travel agent) by providing resellers with an incentive to push (or sell) a product to the end customer. The counterpart to push marketing is push marketing which creates demand at the customer level and pulls the customer through the distribution channel by demanding the product.

Quad
A room that accommodates four persons.

Query
The process of sorting and retrieving information from a database.

Quid
A monetary term for a the British pound.

Quota Sample
A research sample that involves forming groups based on certain characteristics. A random sample can be selected from the quota.

Rack Rate
Standard daily rate established for hotel rooms. This rate is typically public, printed on hotel brochures and listed on websites.

Reach
The measure of how many people in a market will be exposed (or reached) through a specific means of advertising or promotional communication

Reasonable Number
A forecast of the break even point for a tour.

Rebate
A rebate is an amount paid by way of reduction, return, or refund on what has already been paid or contributed. It is a type of sales promotion that marketers use primarily as incentives or supplements to product sales. The mail-in rebate is the most common.

Reconfirm
Double check that a reservation exists and is accurate.

Record Locator
The unique identifier that confirms an airline reservation and is assigned to that reservation. It consists of six characters (both letters and numbers) and is the reference for retrieving, changing or canceling an existing reservation.

Red-Eye
A flight in which travel begins late at night (usually after 9PM) and arrives in the early morning (5-6AM). Taking a red eye entails being in the air over night and refers to the "red eyes" of passengers due to lack of sleep!

Referral Agent/Agency
An agent that refers business to a travel agency in return for a commission or fee.

Reissue
When a new ticket is issued as a result of a change of plans. This can often require fees and/or penalties.

Relationship Marketing
The process of building and nurturing an ongoing relationship with customers.

Repositioning
The moving of a cruise ship to another home port for all of part of a season, such as the repositioning of ships to Alaska for the summer. Often these cruises are excellent bargains, but will involve one-way airfare home from the port o debarkation.

Res
Short for reservation.

Reseller
Someone who purchases product (usually at a discounted rate) with the intention of reselling to the end customer at the rate plus commission.

Retail Price
The actual price a customer pays for a travel product/service.

Retailer
A middleman, like a travel agent, who sells directly to the customer.

Retirement Travel
A category of travel referring to when a traveler is/has retired from a career and begins to travel more for pleasure.

Return on Investment (ROi)
A common ratio that helps evaluate profitability and efficiency by measuring the benefit a company gains for the resources it put into a project or investment.– stands for Return on Investment. This is a common business term for most industries. For the travel industry it often refers to measuring marketing/sales investment (in the form of promotional activity or campaigns), relative to the benefit of those same activities.

Rollaway
A cot or transportable bedding that can be added to a hotel room to accommodate another guest.

Romantic Destinations
A category of travel or destination that is associated with couples, weddings, honeymoons, anniversaries and exudes a feeling of excitement and love.

Room Night
A term for hotels describing the occupancy of one room for one night.

Room Occupancy
A hotel term where a room has been booked or occupied. Typically referred to as a measurement or a percentage of available rooms.

Room Rates
The various rates used by hotel/lodging properties to price their various rooms.

Rooming List
A printout of the names of all hotel guests that are part of a group or a tour that may have special requests, pricing or billing.

Round the World Fare
An airline ticket that allows travelers to make many stops on an itinerary using codeshare agreements, often at a lower cost. Typically the passenger flies around the world instead of between two destinations.

Round Trip
A flight that begins and ends in the same city with no other destinations included on the reservation.

Run-of-house
Refers to a hotel room which is assigned at the discretion of the hotel shortly before you arrive and usually is at a discounted rate.

Run-of-ship
A cabin that is assigned at the last moment, given the cruise line the ability to shift accommodations as needed.

Sabre
The world's largest global distribution (reservation) system. Often referred to as a GDS

Safari
The journey that includes wild game viewing (and sometimes hunting). Time spent in the wilderness areas like game reserves and national parks. The modern safari is a socially responsible journey designed to interact ethically with local communities and have a positive impact to local economoies.

Sales Margin
A term used by resellers to describe the profit as a percentage of sales revenue.

Sample
The portion of the population chosen to represent the whole when being studied for research purposes.

Saturday Night Stay
Requires staying over a Saturday night to receive a special fare or discount.

Scheduled Carrier
An airline that offers regularly scheduled flights between destinations.

Sea bands
A product resembling a bracelet that is worn on the wrists and operates via acupressure in attempt to quell sea sickness.

Sea Legs
A slang term meaning to be physically acclimated to a ship or the water without losing balance and without getting sea sick.

Segment
One leg or portion of an airline trip. The segment begins when you board the airplane in one city and arrive in another city -- regardless of whether or not this is your final destination or if you remain on the same aircraft. A segment is based one one city pair.

Sentiment Analysis
An attempt to understand how an audience feels about a brand, company, or product based on social data. Sentiment analysis typically involves natural language processing or another computational method to identify the attitude contained in a social media message. Different analytics platforms—such as Hootsuite Insights—classify sentiment in a variety of ways; for example, some use “polar” classification (positive or negative sentiment), while others sort messages by emotion or tone (Contentment/Gratitude, Fear/Uneasiness, etc.).

Service non comprise
This is French for "service not included".

Shells
These are preprinted brochures with photos, graphics and basic information that will not change such that specific information can be inserted. The shell serves as the "pretty wrapper" to the text and information that is tucked inside.

Shore Excursion
A land tour that is usually available at ports of call for cruises. Shore excursions are typically sold by cruise lines or tour operators to cruise passengers.

Shoulder Season
The period of time between the busy and quiet seasons in which prices are typically lower.

Single Room
A room that is only guaranteed to comfortably accommodate one guest. May also be called a Standard Rom.

Single Supplement
An additional charge added to a solo traveler, when prices were originally quoted for a dual or double occupancy.

Sleeper
Refers to the sleeping compartment on board a train.

Slicks
This is a marketing term that refers to a one-page (usually four color) marketing or sales sheet that often has photos or graphics with some information.

Slideshare
A popular social platform for sharing presentations and other business-oriented content. SlideShare makes it easy to embed content on websites and share it to other social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

Soft Adventure
An outdoor travel experience that is not physically demanding such as a hot-air balloon ride or a canyon horseback trail ride.

SoLoMo
A word that combines three consumer trends: social (So); location-based (Lo); and mobile (Mo). SoLoMo is a catchy term that can help marketers keep these important concepts top of mind in their communication efforts.

Sommelier
A wine professional, usually hired by the most upscale restaurants and establishments, and on staff to suggest wine and food pairings to dining guests.

Spa
Usually located inside of a nice hotel, the spa offers health and beauty treatments like steam baths, massages, facials, manicures, pedicures, etc. Often includes access to an exercise room.

Special Fare
Any fare that deviates from normal pricing. Special fares are typically discounted.

Split Itinerary
An itinerary in which part of the group does one things while the other part does something else.

Split Ticket
Issuing multiple tickets for one round-trip journey. This is done to reduce the total cost of the entire reservation.

Stabilizer
A device on most cruise vessels to reduce the "pitch and roll" when at sea which is the movement that often causes seasickness.

Standby
Referring to the status or a passenger who does not have a confirmed airline seat, but is waiting to see if there is space prior to departure. This passenger is flying "Standby" or is a "Standby Passenger". Also referred to as someone flying "Space Available".

Star Service Rating
A common rating system in the hotel industry that describes a level of detail or service consistently achieve by a specific property. Though subjective, it provides a travel agent and a customer with a loose guideline of service and expectation.

Starboard
Refers to the right side of the ship.

Stateroom
A private cabin or compartment with sleeping accommodations on a ship or a train.

Stern
Refers to the rear of the ship.

Stopover
A planned stay or stopover in a city for a day or more before traveling to a final destination. This often adds significantly to the cost of an air ticket as it's priced as two segments.

STPC (Stopover Paid by Carrier)
A program an airline might offer in order to encourage travelers to use a bad connection where the airline covers prearranged hotel, ground transportation, and meals during a stopover. This can be a great way for a traveler to experience a new city at no additional cost.

Strategic Plan
A report or document that describes a company's mission statement, goals, objectives and strategic actions.

Student Visa
Permission to enter a country for a student that is attending school temporarily in that country.

Subcontractor
A local operator who provides services for a wholesaler.

Suite
A premium hotel room that usually offers a living room and kitchenette in addition to the bedroom.

Supplier
A company that offers travel services to the general public. Travel suppliers include, airlines, hotels, cruise lines, car rental companies, tours, etc.

Suppliers
Tourism or Travel professionals who sell to businesses (like Buyers). They sell B2B (Business To Business) and work with tourism companies to promote their attraction or destination.

Surface
Refers to travel over land versus in the air or on the sea.

SWOT Analysis
A marketing a sales term which is a summary of a company's Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that are most threatening or time sensitive.

T&E
This refers to Travel and Entertainment expenses.

Target Market
The specific group of customers who will be the focus of the company's marketing and sales efforts. It can be broadly defined (like everyone traveling to Florida during the winter), or it can be specific (like everyone traveling to Florida during January over the age of 50 who are couples).

Tariff
A schedule of prices/fares.

Telemarketing
Direct marketing via telephone calls - fondly called "robo (for robotic) calls" today.

Tender
A small boat or ferry; that carries passengers from an anchored cruise ship to the pier at a port of call. Many ships are too large for existing port facilities and they will anchor off shore and "tender" their passengers in for their visit in the port city.

Terminal
A building where customers report for their trips via airplane, train, bus etc. Also called a depot or a station.

TGV
The TGV is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator. In French, TGV stands for Train à Grande Vitesse, or "high-speed train". The TGV brand is in the process of being phased out. Services are being re-branded as InOui and Ouig0, however, TGV will likely be a future reference.

Through Passenger
A passenger who remains on the same airplane at a connecting stop on the way to their final destination.

Ticket Stock
Blank airline tickets.

Tickler System
A method for monitoring reservations and payments that is arranged by date and points out late payments so customers can be contacted. Tickler used to be a manual system, but there are now multiple automated options that identify customers based on various parameters.

Tiered Override Plan
When commissions rise proportionately with a corresponding increase in sales.

Tour
A prearranged, prepaid journey to one or more destinations that generally returns to the point of origin, is usually arranged with an itinerary of leisure activities, and includes at least two travel elements.

Tour Catalog
A publication by tour wholesalers listing their tour offerings. Catalogs are distributed to retail travel agents who then make them available to their customers. Bookings by retail agents are commissionable.

Tour Company
A tour company or tour operator typically combines tour and travel components to create a packaged vacation. They advertise and produce brochures to promtote their products, vacations and itineraries.

Tour Conductor
The person who accompanies and is in charge of a tour, often on a motor coach tour.

Tour Departure
The date of the start by any individual or grouyp of a tour program or by extension, the entire operation of that single tour.

Tour Director
Also known as the Tour Manager or Conductor or Escort. The person who is responsible for a group on tour and for most aspects of a tour's execution.

Tour Guide
A person qualified and often certified to conduct tours of specific locations or attractions.

Tour Manual
A compendium of facts about a destination, tour procedures, forms and other information that a tour operator gives to all of its directors.

Tour Menu
A menu that limits group clients to two or three choices.

Tour Operator
A person or company that contracts with suppliers to create and/or market a tour and/or subcontract their performance.

Tour Order
A voucher given to the purchaser of a tour package that identifies the tour, the seller, and the fact that the tour is prepaid. The purchaser then uses this form as a proof of payment and receives vouchers for meals, porterage, transfers, entrance fees and other expenses.

Tour Planner
A person who researches destinations and suppliers, negotiates contracts and vreates itineraries for travel packages.

Tour Series
Multiple departures to the same destination throughout the year.

Tourism
The commercial organization or the business of leisure travel to places of interest.

Tourist Card
A card issued to a visitor in lieu of a visa, usually for a short duration visit.

Tours
A tour is a journey for pleasure which includes the visiting of a number of places in sequence, especially with an organized group often led by a guide.

TPA
Tourism Promotion Agency is is similar to a DMO (Destination Management Organization). A government agency that promotes tourism in a specific country or region within a state.

Tracking Study
A survey of customers before and after implementing a promotional campaign for the purpose of assessing change in consumer behavior.

Trans-Canal
Passing through the Panama Canal, which is an artificial waterway (82 km), in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade.

Transcon
Short for Transcontinental. Meaning to cross a continent (just one continent not multiple). For example from California to New York would be a transcon journey.

Transcontinental
Meaning to cross a continent (just one continent not multiple). For example from California to New York would be a transcon journey.

Transfer
Local transportation and porterage from one carrier terminal to another, from terminal to a hotel or from a hotel to an attraction.

Transient Occupancy Tax
Also known as a Bed Tax, this is a city or county tax that is added to the price of the room.

Transit Visa
A visa that allows the holder to stop over in a country or make a travel connection or brief visit.

Transportation
Any method of moving travelers from one point in a journey to another, such as air, ship, rail, and motor coach travel.

Travel Advisor
Also known as a travel agent or travel counselor, a travel advisor simplifies the time-consuming and complicated process of researching, planning and booking travel for their customer. In addition to consultative services they also book reservations for flights, cruises, rental cars, hotels, etc., as well as plan events and meetings. Agents cater to a wide demographic serving leisure and business customers as well as corporations.

Travel Advisory
A travel warning issued by the US Department of State, indicating that special caution should be taken in a country due to political unrest, natural disaster or other special situation.

Travel Agency
A general term used to describe a business dedicated to providing support, services, and fulfillment of leisure or corporate travel for paying clients. A travel agency may or may not be approved or authorized to issue airline tickets directly through the Airlines Reporting Corporation (ARC) or the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Travel Agencies can specialize in a particular travel segment (i.e. Cruise) or market a broader array of segments. Travel Agencies can be classified as independent (owned and operated without a host agency or franchise agreement), as a hosted agency (supported by contract by a larger travel agency) or as a franchise (an agency licensed to operate under a larger brand like CruisePlanners or American Express).

Travel Agent
An individual or company that sells travel services on a commission basis.

Travel Blog
Refers to an online chronicle or information area that is created by an individual traveler to provide specific information and travel expertise to the consumer for free. Can be a general travel blog or a specific travel blog (like solo adventure travel to Africa for women from the US). This consumer-facing medium has grown substantially over the past five years as social media has become a significant driver for "following" category-specific experts. While this does not replace a travel writer for a consumer travel magazine, it provides ultra-segmentation for consumers to receive exactly the information they are seeking regardless of destination, or travel segment)

Travel Component
A singular component of the travel experience like transportation, lodging, dining, attractions, activities, entertainment, etc., all as part of a tour package or individually purchased.

Travel Destination
The place or destination that someone is going to visit.

Travel Experience
A travel experience or experiential travel (also known as immersion travel), is a form of tourism in which people focus on experiencing a different country or culture by connecting to its history, people and culture.

Travel Institute
The primary educational and certification arm of the travel industry. Formerly know as the Institute of Certified Travel Agents (ICTA, the Travel Institute has been helping travel professionals stand out from the crowd with industry-recognized certifications.

Travel Insurance
Insurance that is intended to cover medical expenses, trip cancellation, lost luggage, flight accident and other losses that might occur while traveling.

Travel Policy
A statement of guidelines that a company agrees to follow relative to its employee's travel. Includes policies regarding expense reimbursement, emergency contacts, class of service for airlines, hotel preferences, negotiated rates for various travel components, etc.

Travel Rewards
Travel reward programs are often referred to as a loyalty or frequency program for the purpose of creating customer loyalty, repurchase, referral, research, etc. The award component of these program is also meant to "reward" frequency or premium patronage, as well as offer a customer "thank you".

Travelogues
Also known as a travel blog, this refers to an online chronicle or information area that is created by an individual traveler to provide information and travel expertise to the consumer for free. This consumer-facing medium has grown substantially over the past five years as social media has become a significant driver for "following" category-specific experts.

Trundle Bed
A bed that stores itself under another bed - usually on casters. Often found in smaller hotel rooms or in cramped transportation accommodations.

Turn
An airline term which means a flight that leaves a hub or home base and returns back to that base in the same day. Also known as a turnaround.

Twenty Four Hour Time
This is a measurement of time that uses the twenty four hour clock. Frequently used in Europe and other countries as well as the military. For example 1PM is 1300 Hours.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites
A site or a place (like a building, city, complex, desert, monument, mountain, etc.) that is listed by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization as being of special cultural or physical significance.

Unlimited Mileage
A term used by car rental companies to denote that there are no mileage restrictions for the rental.

Unrestricted Fare
An airfare with no limitations or restrictions. Unrestricted fares are typically refundable, with no blackout dates or advance purchase requirements.

Upgrade
To move to a better accommodation or class of service. For example and airline may upgrade you to first class or you might purchase the upgrade.

USTOA
United States Tour Operators Association is a trade association which requires its members to be financially stable and to have a $1Mil or more funds set aside for consumer protection against default.

Value
The relationship between the benefits of a product or service and the price.

Value Added Tax (VAT)
A tax on good purchased in Europe which under certain circumstances can be refunded.

Value-Based Pricing
Pricing a product based on buyer perceptions of value rather than the actual product costs.

Variable Costs
Costs that change with sales or production levels.

Variance Report
A summary of how much a company has performed (or varied) above or below budget.

Verandah
A roofed deck or porch, that is connected to a cruise ship stateroom or a hotel room.

VFR
Visiting Friends and Relatives

Villas
A large and luxurious country residence that is often a fancy vacation home. The word literally means "country house for the elite". Most villas include a large amount of land and often have additional out buildings like barns or garages.

VIP
Very Important Person which can refer to a celebrity or and dignitary or anyone that might have elite status due to their company or personal status.

VIP Experiences
The most exclusive way to go behind the scenes or experience a travel destination. To have special access that others might not have that would be of high value or interest. For example getting VIP access to a concert or a sporting event might mean meeting the performer or the players.

Visa
A document that grants permission/entry to a country for a specific purpose and for a finite period of time.

Vlog
Someone who creates and broadcasts video blogs.

Voucher
Documents that are exchanged for goods and services to substantiate payment that will be paid or has already been paid.

Waitlist
A list of customers/clients awaiting a confirmed reservation for an airline, hotel room or any other limited availability travel component. Waitlisted customers are confirmed after cancellations are received or all confirmed customers are already accounted for and availability still exists.

Waiver
A written acknowledgement that a passenger has declined (or waived) something.

Walk-Up
A customer who purchases an airline ticket at the last moment - usually at the airport ticket counter.

Wellness Travel
A category of travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological or spiritual activities. Wellness resorts and luxury health spas have grown significantly over the past decade as they promote relaxation alongside healthy eating and activities.

Wet Bar
Refers to the area of a room that has a bar or other counter space that includes running water- used in the preparation of drinks.

Wholesale
The sale of travel products and services through an intermediary in exchange for a commission or fee that is generally at a reduced rate.

Word of Mouth Promotion
Personal communication about a product or service between two people. A person to person referral or review.

World Travel Guide
An annual publication of detailed travel information designed to inform and inspire global travelers. From info on currency, climate, visa and passport requirements, sightseeing opportunities, etc. the World Travel Guide a primary resource and book of knowledge for the professional travel agent.

Yield Management
Calculating and analyzing the profits (or the yield) earned per customer.

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